Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in Tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. Morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80-100% in naïve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and species of infected animal determine severity of outcome. PPR was officially confirmed in domestic animals in the Ngorongoro district of Tanzania in 2008. It is now considered to be endemic in the domestic sheep and goat populations throughout Tanzania, but restricted to one or more areas in the small ruminant wildlife population. In this article, we review the history and the current status of PPR in Tanzania and neighboring countries. To control and eradicate PPR in the region, a joint effort between these countries needs to be undertaken. The effort must also secure genuine engagement from the animal holders to succeed.
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