Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae commonly cause infections worldwide. BlaCTX-M-15 has been commonly detected in hospital isolates in Mwanza, Tanzania. Little is known regarding the faecal carriage of ESBL isolates and blaCTX-M-15 allele among humans in the community in developing countries.
A cross-sectional study involving 334 humans from the community settings in Mwanza City was conducted between June and September 2014. Stool specimens were collected and processed to detect ESBL producing enterobacteriaceae. ESBL isolates were confirmed using disc approximation method, commercial ESBL plates and VITEK-2 system. A polymerase chain reaction and sequencing based allele typing for CTX-M ESBL genes was performed to 42 confirmed ESBL isolates followed by whole genome sequence of 25 randomly selected isolates to detect phylogenetic groups, sequence types plasmid replicon types.
Of 334 humans investigated, 55 (16.5 %) were found to carry ESBL-producing bacteria. Age, history of antibiotic use and history of admission were independent factors found to predict ESBL-carriage. The carriage rate of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was significantly higher than that of Klebsiella pneumoniae(15.1 % vs. 3.8 %, p = 0.026). Of 42 ESBL isolates, 37 (88.1 %) were found to carry the blaCTX-M-15 allele. Other transferrable resistance genes were aac(6’)Ib-cr, aac(3)-IIa, aac(3)-IId, aadA1, aadA5, strA, strB and qnrS1. Eight multi-locus sequence types (ST) were detected in 25 E. coli isolates subjected to genome sequencing. ST-131 was detected in 6 (24 %), ST-38 in 5 (20 %) and 5 (20 %) clonal complex − 10(ST-617, ST-44) of isolates. The pathogenic phylogenetic groups D and B2 were detected in 8/25 (32 %) and 6/25 (24 %) of isolates respectively. BlaCTX-M-15was found to be located in multiple IncY and IncF plasmids while in 13/25(52 %) of cases it was chromosomally located.
The overlap of multi-drug resistant bacteria and diversity of the genotypes carrying CTX-M-15 in the community and hospitals requires an overall approach that addresses social behaviour and activity, rationalization of the antibiotic stewardship policy and a deeper understanding of the ecological factors that lead to persistence and spread of such alleles.
Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS)
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